As a common clinical disease，low back pain seriously affects people's work and life. Discogenic low back pain (DLBP) is considered to be one of the main causes of low back pain， but due to its atypical clinical manifestations，how to make a clear diagnosis has long puzzled clinicians. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the commonly used detection methods, but studies have found that MRI can only be used as a reminder and screening imaging indicator for the diagnosis of DLBP. Intervertebral discography imaging is considered the gold standard for diagnosis，but recent studies have found that imaging itself may increase the risk of disc degeneration and herniation. The treatment methods of vertebral disc-derived low back pain are also diverse：conservative treatment，surgical treatment，and emerging biological treatments，but the effect of most methods is not clear，and more clinical studies are needed to verify. This article reviews the latest advances in the pathogenesis，diagnosis and treatment of discogenic low back pain through a retrospective analysis of domestic and foreign literature.